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Habitat for Heroes | Habitat For Humanity Coastal Fairfield County

Habitat for Heroes | Habitat For Humanity Coastal Fairfield County

CT NOFA One of my Favorite CT Environmental Groups. Bill is an amazing advocate. I see him everywhere! He also works well to find common ground and build relationships with people and organizations who don't really understand organic concepts.

CT NOFA Contact Us

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Want to learn more about our programs?
Visit for more information.



Contact Us

Mailing address:

PO Box 164
Stevenson, CT 06491

Phone: (203) 888-5146

Fax: (203) 888-9280

General email:

Bill Duesing, Executive Director:

Deb Legge, Office Manager:

82yrs The Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut, Inc., member of the National Garden Clubs, Inc.

About The Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut, Inc., member of the National Garden Clubs, Inc.

About Us
82 Years of History

Blue Star Memorial Marker
On November 9, 2006, the Durham Garden Club dedicated a Blue Star Memorial at the Durham Town Hall. A tree was also planted as part of the Patriotic Trees National Project.
For more information about the National Blue Star Memorial Highway Marker Program as well as information about additional markers in Connecticut, click here.

The Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut, Inc., is an educational, charitable non-profit organization made up of 7,234 individual members and 152 clubs, along with 13 affiliate organizations. The strength and value of our clubs and their members has been gained from the accumulated knowledge of the past 82 years, and has enriched our homes, our gardens and our communities. These responsibilities we share have not diminished; there is still a great deal to be accomplished but as we work, compete, educate and learn, we will continue to meet these challenges with success.
The Federated Garden Clubs of Connecticut, Inc., is one of thirteen charter members of the National Council of State Garden Clubs, Inc., now known as the National Garden Clubs, Inc., which was organized on May 1, 1929, (two days after Connecticut's first meeting), and has had almost continuous representation on the National Board.
There are 36 members on the Board of Directors and 13 Honorary members. In addition, there are three Liaisons to the Friends of Connecticut State Parks, Friends of Elizabeth Park, and Habitat for Humanity.
National Garden Clubs, Inc. is a service organization dedicated to the development of gardening, the betterment and beautification of the community and the exchange of ideas. It is the largest gardening organization in the world, comprising over 500,000 members from every state in the union and an equal number of International Affiliates. It is closely unified through the eight regions under a Regional Director, who serves on the Executive Committee.
Our office is located in Branford, Connecticut and is open from 9 am to 2 pm, Monday to Wednesday.

 "Read More! What a wonderful Organization.DD"

Mailing Address:
PO Box 854
Branford, CT 06405
(203) 488-5528
(203) 488-5528

someone cut and killed 15 Sycamore trees that line the scenic walk at St Mary’s by the Sea. The trees were intentionally cut around the base of the trees with a chainsaw. Unfortunately, there will be no way to save these trees. Please help us find out who killed these trees and why!!! We will be offering a reward for information that leads to an arrest.

Sycamore Trees Killed at St. Mary’s 

REWARD - I'm sure they found who was responsible by now!

Bridgeport Chainsaw Tree Massacre

March 14th, 2010
March 14, 2010,
In the midst of a rain storm, someone cut and killed 15 Sycamore trees that line the scenic walk at St Mary’s by the Sea. The trees were intentionally cut around the base of the trees with a chainsaw. Unfortunately, there will be no way to save these trees.
Please help us find out who killed these trees and why!!!
We will be offering a reward for information that leads to an arrest. Please email info@blackrockgardenclub with information.
Thank you for your help and support,
The Black Rock Garden Club

Local Students and Neighbors Restore Urban Canopy, One Tree at a Time

June 12th, 2008
This year, in celebration of Arbor Day, the Garden Club planted eight disease resistant Liberty elm trees. We are grateful for the many community contributors to this effort, including: Almstead Tree and Shrub Care, Black Rock Pilates and Physical Therapy, Keeley Travel Depot, Matty’s Corner, Atty. Michael Meehan and Atty. Tom Mulligan. We are also grateful to the many community volunteers who came to help plant the trees, the Harborview Market for keeping us well hydrated, and then neighborhood homeowners who sponsored trees and will continue to care for them.
Black Rock Garden Club and Black Rock School Kick off Arbor Day Celebrations with Tree Planting at Connecticut’s Beardsley Zoo
The Black Rock Garden Club is pleased to announce its third annual celebration dedicated to restoring Bridgeport’s urban canopy. Activities will commence with a very special Arbor Day tree planting ceremony at Connecticut’s Beardsley Zoo from 12:30 PM TO 1:30 PM on Friday April 25th, 2008.
"I'll check up and post how this sad story was resolved. I hear amazing things about Bridgeport's tree planting." DD

Solar Flare Predicted for 2013 - The History of Massive Solar Flares

Solar Flare Predicted for 2013 - The History of Massive Solar Flares

Aiki Farms Aikikai The dojo's symbol is a tsuba (sword guard) depicting intertwined rice stalks. The tsuba symbolizes the relationship between the warrior and the earth that provides sustenance. I wish we had one in New Haven County

Aiki Farms Aikikai

Aiki Farms

Aiki Farms is proud to offer instruction in Aikido, Iaido, and serious Zazen meditation.

We are pleased to bring you into our circle, and invite you to the farm to pick your own, sit Zazen or to practice Aikido with us.
NEW! - Interns at Aiki Farms will receive an education not only in farming, but in the politics of food. Take a moment to read how Aiki Farms is helping to push new Genetically Modified Ingredient labeling laws through the Connecticut legislature. Students will actively participate in defending their constitutionally guaranteed rights.
* Aiki Farms would like to thank everyone who came down to the March Seminar, and made it a huge success. We are pleased to have had honored Shihans Lorraine DiAnne, David Halprin, and Jack Arnold. Thanks also to Pat Murphy, for capturing pictures and video from the event, which are posted on our videos page.
* Kimberly Hartke published an article written by Burns Sensei, "Small Farms and Food Freedom: Opening the Door to American Prosperity"

About Us

Aiki Farms is a traditional Aikido dojo located on an growbiointensive farm in Ledyard, CT. The dojo is a member in good standing of Birankai International ( under the direction of T.K. Chiba, Shihan, a direct student (uchi-deshi) of O-Sensei.
Burns Sensei Farming with StudentsRobert Burns Sensei founded Aiki Farms in Ledyard, CT in 2001, bringing together his twin passions of Aikido and farming. Pointing out that O-Sensei was himself a farmer and was known to often say "budo and farming are one," Burns Sensei believes that the knowledge of cultivation and nutrition gained through farming significantly increases ones' understanding of the depth and complexity of Aikido. All students are required to sit Zazen, and participate in farming. The four pillars of our practice are Zazen, Aikido, Iaido, and Farming.
The dojo's symbol is a tsuba (sword guard) depicting intertwined rice stalks. The tsuba symbolizes the relationship between the warrior and the earth that provides sustenance.

Permaculture Melbourne

Permaculture Melbourne

Frank Zappa & The Mothers - Call Any Vegetable - YouTube

Frank Zappa & The Mothers - Call Any Vegetable - YouTube

Frank Zappa & The Mothers - Call Any Vegetable

Dweezil Zappa Plays Zappa | Eddie Van Halen speech | Eruption | Raleigh 2012 - YouTube

Dweezil Zappa Plays Zappa | Eddie Van Halen speech | Eruption | Raleigh 2012 - YouTube

Quiz: Which Harry Potter character are you? | Fellowship of the Minds - Christians who stand up for Harry Potter, it always amazes me in a positive way.

Quiz: Which Harry Potter character are you? | Fellowship of the Minds

Christians who stand up for Harry Potter, it always amazes me in a positive way.  This is not an endorsement of this group. I do not know them.

Quiz: Which Harry Potter character are you?

Which character in the Harry Potter movies and novels do you most resemble?
Harry Potter or Draco Malfoy?
Hermione Granger or Bellatrix Lestrange?
Albus Dumbledore or Voldemort?
Take this fun quiz to find out! Click here.
(I’m most like — 88% — Albus Dumbledore! LOL)


A reader wrote this message on FOTM’s Facebook page:
Leslie Long What is a christian site asking this question for? Harry Potter is of the devil!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
This is my reply:
Leslie, The quiz is not an endorsement of witchcraft. Whatever you think of the novels and movies, they are about Good vs. Evil and a powerful statement about the necessity to confront and overcome Evil, despite the personal costs. That message I very much approve. ~Dr. Eowyn

EPIC WIN Compilation - Part 10 - HD - YouTube

EPIC WIN Compilation - Part 10 - HD - YouTube

EPIC WIN Compilation - Part 10 - HD 

Food for thought. I once dated a guy who loved extreme hanging about, that was 30 yrs ago and he's still alive.  

Watch your favorite TV show online : Bones Season 8 Episode 23

Watch your favorite TV show online : Bones Season 8 Episode 23: Season 8, Episode 23 Aired: April 22, 2013 The Pathos in the Pathogens The team tries to prevent a viral outbreak during an investi...

I love this show! (GrooveJob) on Twitter (GrooveJob) on Twitter


Summer Jobs, Part Time Jobs, Teen Jobs, Student Jobs: Groove Job

Find an Internship or Volunteer in Fairfield, Connecticut ( CT ) Luv It!

Find an Internship or Volunteer in Fairfield, Connecticut ( CT )


Find an Internship or Volunteer in Fairfield, Connecticut ( CT )

If you're looking for internships or volunteer work in Fairfield, Connecticut or even to get a summer job, you've come to the right place! With over 30,000 around the county, chances are that has the right job for you and wants to be your only source for finding internships and volunteer positions in Fairfield, Connecticut.
We've got plenty of intern and volunteer work in Fairfield, Connecticut. Check out the list of employers below who have positions in Fairfield. Remember to check back with on a regular basis. We add new internships and volunteer jobs listings to our database every week, so you'll find new opportunities every time you check back with us.
Browse by Employer (Click On Logos)
Click for Intern or Volunteer at Global Citizen Corps Intern or Volunteer at INTERNET BRANDS Click for Intern or Volunteer at INROADS
Show Results within: 5 Miles | 15 Miles | 30 Miles
Jobs by Title
Corporate Healthcare Accounting Internship
Corporate Healthcare Accounting Internship Fairfield,CT PD# : 5415 Business/Program : GE Corporate Position Title : Corporate Healthcare...
Fairfield, CT
Employee Health Communications Intern
Employee Health Communications Intern Fairfield,CT PD# : 5423 Business/Program : GE Corporate Position Title : Employee Health...
Fairfield, CT
Digital Media & User Experience Intern
Digital Media & User Experience Intern Fairfield,CT PD# : 5418 Business/Program : GE Corporate Position Title : Digital Media &...
Fairfield, CT
Intern - Heineman Compliance Fellow
1734123 Business GE Corporate Business Segment Corporate Legal Posted Position Title Intern - Heineman Compliance Fellow Career Level...
Fairfield, CT
Legal Intern
Legal Intern Fairfield,CT PD# : 5394 Business/Program : GE Corporate Position Title : Legal Intern Requester SSO ID : 200021335 Job...
Fairfield, CT
Marketing Communications Intern
Marketing Communications Intern Fairfield,CT PD# : 5423 Business/Program : GE Corporate Position Title : Marketing Communications Intern...
Fairfield, CT
Operations Intern
Operations Intern Fairfield,CT PD# : 5396 Business/Program : GE Corporate Position Title : Operations Intern Requester SSO ID :...
Fairfield, CT
Healthcare Benefits and Wellness Intern
Healthcare Benefits and Wellness Intern Fairfield,CT PD# : 5395 Business/Program : GE Corporate Position Title : Healthcare Benefits and...
Fairfield, CT
Sales/Marketing Intern
Full Time position available for a candidate with first hand knowledge of social media and data entry. Will Report to Event Sales...
Bridgeport, CT
Intern -Credit Card Systems Operations
…Specific skills will be taught as per Lean and Green Belt improvement concepts. Project Delivery Assistance: Assist Project Managers on...
Bridgeport, CT
Professional Sports Team - Ticket Operations Intern
Job# 453211793 Intern characteristics desired: Posses strong organizational and communication (both oral and written) skills Be...
Bridgeport, CT
Professional Sports Team - Building Operations Intern
Job# 453211798 Intern characteristics desired: Posses strong organizational and communication (both oral and written) skills Be...

"This is just a tiny portion visit this very fine site and find an internship". DD
Bridgeport, CT

Nathanael Johnson | California Watch - I just met him today and bought his new book!

Nathanael Johnson | California Watch

 All Natural.......

Nathanael Johnson

Freelance Journalist


Nathanael Johnson is a freelance writer living in San Francisco. He's working on a book, with the working title "The Heidi Hypothesis" that asks if finding harmony with nature really does make us healthier. His work has appeared in Harper's Magazine, New York, Outside, This American Life and Pop Up Magazine as well as on National Public Radio.

Recent Spotlight Articles

As early elective births increase so do health risks for mother, child
The number of women giving birth early – often for no medical reason – has increased dramatically over the past two decades, altering the way we bear children and posing new health risks to both mothers and newborns, experts say.
For-profit hospitals performing more C-sections
Private medical centers in California are more likely to perform C-sections compared with nonprofit hospitals.
How the C-section story came together
California Watch analysis of hospital C-section rates relied on state data.
Instituciones hospitalarias con fines de lucro practican más cesáreas
Las mujeres cuyos hijos nacen en centros hospitalarios con fines de lucro tienen una probabilidad mucho más alta de que les realicen una costosa cesárea que las mujeres que dan a luz en un centro médico sin fines de lucro, señaló un análisis realizado por California Watch.

Law that holds parents accountable for kids truancy applied differently across Southern California

Law that holds parents accountable for kids truancy applied differently across Southern California

Law that holds parents accountable for kids truancy applied differently across Southern California

Mercer 2083

Jonathan Pobre/Flickr CC

A student reads in the classroom.
Last week, six parents in Orange County who had let their kids miss up to 22 days from school were charged with two misdemeanors: contributing to the delinquency of a minor and failure to reasonably supervise or encourage school attendance. This last charge was born from a new law targeting parents who can’t seem to get their kids to school.
“It’s unfortunate in a lot of senses that we have to resort to prosecution," said Orange County Deputy District Attorney Frank Acosta. "But a lot of the time it’s the message that has to be sent, that there is a violation of the law and we have to follow the law.”
Acosta also said parents need to hear that they could go to jail for one year and pay a $2,000 fine if they continually refuse help getting their kids to class. Five Orange County parents arrested two years ago received probation.

Very Interesting Article Read More!

"Iron Man 3" hits Hollywood Pictures - CBS News OMG I forgot! I want to see this movie!

"Iron Man 3" hits Hollywood Pictures - CBS News

Iron Man 3 will have to wait for $5 Tuesday. I'll break into my change for charity cup. I do at least 25 to 30 hrs a week of community service. . . I can't wait to see it! 

Consumer group picks unhealthiest kids' meals at restaurants Pictures - CBS News

Consumer group picks unhealthiest kids' meals at restaurants Pictures - CBS News

I'm so brain washed the cheeses burger and fries looked so tasty. I would prefer a turkey burger minus the bread and fries. Give me a Turkey burger salad. No wonder we Americans are so fat! DD

 "Most restaurant meals for children are too high in fat, sugar and salt, according to a new report released by the Center for Science in the Public Interest. The nonprofit health advocacy group found that 97 percent of the children's menu offerings they tested failed to meet recommended nutritional criteria for 4 to 8-year-olds.

To meet CSPI's nutrition criteria, kids' meals must not exceed 430 calories and cannot have more than 35 percent added sugars by weight nor more than 770 milligrams of sodium. Meals must include at least half a serving of fruit or vegetable, an item that is 51 percent or more whole grain or include minimum levels of vitamins or fiber"

April 28, The "retro-future" of "The Jetsons" I loved the Jetsons!

(CBS News) Time now to "Meet The Jetsons," or meet them again, in the case of anyone who watched them on TV over the past 50+ years. As Lee Cowan tells us, they raised our hopes for the future -- and raised our expectations as well:

In the shadow of its iconic water tower at the heart of Warner Brothers Studios, the future is already 50 years old.
There, in the faded pencil of old storyboards, is that familiar futuristic family from the 21st century.
Everything about "The Jetsons" was space-age cool. And in 1962 when it first debuted, it all seemed oddly possible.
From suits to make us fly, to colonies on the Moon -- even pneumatic tube transport.
The Jetsonian future -- the year 2062, to be exact -- seemed full of promise. Just ask Matt Novak, a self-described Jetsonologist.
Novak tells Cowan that he agrees "The Jetsons" is "just a cartoon, and I totally understand and recognize it. But as a parody show, I think it's important."
He analyzed all 24 episodes of the original series for Smithsonian Magazine, making the case that despite being a half-century old, "The Jetsons" still sets the bar for what we expect.

For more info:

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Boston bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev caught on Russia wiretap

Boston bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev caught on Russia wiretap

Link between calcium supplements and heart disease raises the question: Take them or toss them? - Harvard Health Publications (Calcium-rich foods are better?)

Link between calcium supplements and heart disease raises the question: Take them or toss them? - Harvard Health Publications

Link between calcium supplements and heart disease raises the question: Take them or toss them?

Calcium-rich foods are better

Here we go again. First it was vitamin E. Then it was beta carotene. Now calcium supplements are being called on the carpet after researchers claimed they may do more harm than good.
The flap comes in the wake of a German study that found a significantly increased risk of heart attack among women taking calcium supplements, but not among those who got their calcium from food. The study appears in the June 2012 issue of the journal Heart.
Since calcium supplements are recommended to prevent osteoporosis for virtually everyone over age 50, this leaves millions of people wondering whether they should ditch their daily calcium pills. Three Harvard professors weigh in on the issue.

Calcium and the heart

Over time, calcium can accumulate in arteries. It makes them stiffer and less responsive to the demands of the body. Rigid arteries contribute to high blood pressure, angina (chest pain with exertion or stress), and heart failure. Calcium also builds up in plaque, the cholesterol-filled pockets that grow inside arteries like tiny pimples. By narrowing arteries, plaque can choke off the supply of blood to heart muscle and other vital tissues. If a plaque bursts open, it can trigger a heart attack, stroke, or sudden cardiac arrest.
What researchers don’t know is whether this process is influenced by the amount of calcium a person takes in each day from supplements.

Supplements are okay…for now

A decision to stop taking calcium supplements should not be made on this study, says Dr. Deepak Bhatt, a cardiologist at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital.
“The study did not provide iron-clad evidence of a connection between calcium supplements and heart attack. Although it’s not the first report suggesting this connection, no study has definitely proven that excessive calcium intake contributes to plaque formation and heart disease,” Dr. Bhatt told me.
He questions the researchers’ explanation that excess calcium is deposited in the arteries, because the bones have limited ability to absorb calcium given in larger doses than found in foods. “We know that calcium in plaque is a response to injury, an effort to wall off an area of the artery that has been damaged by cholesterol or smoking, for example. It can happen in people whose calcium levels are in the normal range,” he says.
Dietary calcium is important, as it helps to build strong bones and keep them healthy. That’s why Dr. Bhatt would support people who, on their doctor’s advice, get some of the recommended 1,000 to 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day through supplements because they can’t get that amount from food.
“It’s perfectly reasonable to stick with these recommendations regarding calcium intake for now,” he says.

Calcium-rich foods are better

Dr. Richard Lee, co-editor of the Harvard Heart Letter and a cardiologist who specializes in finding new approaches to treating cardiovascular diseases, is more cautious. Because calcium supplements have not been proven safe without a doubt, and most people can get enough calcium through diet, he suggests that people try to get their daily allowance of this mineral from food.
“I don’t think people should take calcium supplements unless they understand there may be a heart hazard that appears in the future. When people really pin me down, I tell them to take a once-a-day multivitamin and eat a balanced diet. That is plenty for almost everyone,” he says.

Supplements are just that

Dr. David Slovik, an osteoporosis specialist at Massachusetts General Hospital, agrees with Dr. Bhatt that the research connecting calcium supplements with heart attack does not provide enough clarity to challenge current recommendations.
He suggests people not rely on supplements as their primary source of calcium.
“I tell my patients to try to get as much calcium from food as possible. They should also exercise and take vitamin D to help maximize and maintain their bone strength,” he says.

Grea Site! Garden Designers Roundtable: A garden for wildlife (the good AND the bad) — Gossip in the Garden

Garden Designers Roundtable: A garden for wildlife (the good AND the bad) — Gossip in the Garden
Amazing picture and great article about pollinators.

You will really love this classy garden site!

Was the FBI Monitoring Boston Bombing Suspects for Years? | Mother Jones

Was the FBI Monitoring Boston Bombing Suspects for Years? | Mother Jones

Why didn't they get deported?

Succulent Container Gardens: Design Eye-Catching Displays with 350 Easy-Care Plants: Debra Lee Baldwin: 9780881929591: Books

Succulent Container Gardens: Design Eye-Catching Displays with 350 Easy-Care Plants: Debra Lee Baldwin: Books

Succulent Container Gardens: Design Eye-Catching Displays with 350 Easy-Care Plants [Hardcover]

BlueSource HydroRight Dual Flush Converter-HYR271 at The Home Depot

BlueSource HydroRight Dual Flush Converter-HYR271 at The Home Depot

BlueSource HydroRight Dual Flush Converter

Model # HYR271

Internet # 202267979

Store SKU # 199695

3.7 / 5108 reviews

$19.98 /EA-Each

Napalm in War

Napalm appeared fairly late in WWII and was used much more in Korea and later. Napalm was a big hit with the allied forces, who used it extensively in World War II in flamethrowers and fire bombs. The napalm was mixed in varying concentrations of 6% (for flame throwers) and 12-15% for bombs mixed on site (for use in perimeter defense). After the first few months of World War II, napalm was mixed in England and shipped in 55-gallon drums to the Continent, where it was handled by air chemical companies. The most common type of fire-bomb was the napalm bomb, an explosive mix of jellied gasoline which later gained notoriety in the Vietnam War.
The first use of napalm occurred on July 23, 1944, during pre-invasion air strikes on the island of Tinian, part of the Marianas island chain in the Pacific. It was used by the Allied Forces in World War II against cities in Japan. The primary dispersment of napalm was through the usage of 165-gallon containers. The bombs were longer than a tin can, but about as big around. They fell to earth trailing cloth tails that fluttered behind them. A single firebomb dropped from an airplane at low-altitude was capable of producing damage to a 2500-yd2 area. In targeted Japanese cities, napalm bombs burned out 40% of the land area. In a Japanese residential neighborhoods with wood and paper houses, there was no way to fight the fires. On March 9 and 10, 1945, US forces dropped more than 1,500 tons of napalm bombs, all produced at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, on Tokyo. The resulting firestorm destroyed enormous sections of the city. In the battle of Iwo Jima, aircraft from small escort aircraft carriers delivered napalm bombs and rockets to the island and supported US troops.
When indendiary weapons were dropped on bunkers in Germany, the intense heat literally baked and dehydrated the dead, giving rise to the German word "Bombenbrandschrumpfeichen," meaning "firebomb shrunken flesh." Allied bombers dropped an estimated 3.4 kilotons of incendiaries on the German city of Dresden. The attack on Dresden in February 1945 has always been a contentious issue because of the number of lives lost, the lateness of the war, and the cultural significance of the city. The city was a legitimate military target, and the allied air forces did attempt to precisely bomb the city's marshaling yards. In the Dresden bombing attacks of 14-15 February 1945, the American Eighth Air Force and the RAF Bomber Command together employed a total of 1,299 bomber aircraft (527 from the Eighth Air Force, 722 from the RAF Bomber Command) for a total weight, on targets, of 3906.9 tons. Of this tonnage, 1247.6 tons were expanded by the Eighth Air Force, 2659.3 tons by the RAF Bomber Command. The Americans employed 953.3 tons of high explosive bombs and 294.3 tons of incendiary bombs -- all aimed at the Dresden Marshalling Yards. The British employed 1477.7 tons of high explosive bombs and 1181.6 tons of incendiary bombs -- all aimed against the Dresden city area. Military records indicate that about half of the bombs that rained on Dresden were napalm bombs. The exact number of casualties from the Dresden bombings can never be firmly established. Most of the latest German post-war estimates are that about 25,000 persons were killed and about 30,000 were wounded, virtually all of these being casualties from the RAF incendiary attack of 13/14 February 1945. If opprobrium attaches to anyone, it should be Winston Churchill who specifically asked that east German cities be bombed to create refugees and spread havoc. Although Dresden was an unfortunate victim of circumstance, such was not the case for Berlin. The Allies placed the German capital in a different category, ordering attacks on "city center" and employing the maximum number of incendiary bombs.
During the Korean War, the US dropped approximately 250,000 pounds of napalm per day. The napalm-filled bombs were initially made in Japan. They were made of plastic, cost forty dollars each, and held 100 gallons. By 1951, new ones were being made which held 90 gallons. The Navy used Corsairs and dive-bombers to carry their bombs; the Air Force used F-Sls, F-80s, F-86s and B-26s. They experimented at one time with carrying six tanks of napalm on an F-80, but the normal load was two tanks of gasoline and two tanks of napalm. On an average good day, the expenditures of napalm were: Air Force, 45,000 gallons; Navy, 10,000 to 12,000 gallons; Marines, 4,000 to 5,000 gallons. At one time there was considerable difficulty in getting a good mix because there were no thermometers to test the temperature of the gasoline. The personnel mixing the gel would get the current temperature from the weather report, but the gasoline would be from 10 to 15 degrees colder than the air temperature from sitting out in the cold overnight. That problem was solved by using thermometers and the E3R2 mixing unit. The E3R2 is very efficient, and when standardized will alleviate mixing problems. Often, fire-bomb tanks were only half-filled with napalm to lighten the load so that jets could take off from a short runway without difficulty. This required the expenditure of more tanks, but was necessary at times.
The tactics in Korea were much the same as those used during World War II. Napalm fire bombs had been dropped from high-altitude bombers, but with little success. Dive-bombing at very low levels (25 feet) was satisfactory, but the effectiveness of the bomb was reduced to some extent by its skipping when it hit. Napalm was very effective against enemy personnel and as an antitank weapon. A hit anywhere within fifty feet of a tank was effective. It was used widely and successfully against dug-in enemy personnel. When the bomb landed, the burning napalm spread out and dropped down into foxholes. It was especially effective against trenches and improvised protections such as drainage and irrigation ditches where enemy soldiers were spread out along a wide front. The lack of enemy ground fire allowed low-level bombing, even as low as 25 feet. However, a number of duds resulted from drops as low as that. There were three main reasons for duds: extremely low altitudes, failure to arm the bomb, and broken arming wires. The value of napalm was indicated by the great number of requests for its use.
Ground commanders quickly discovered that air strikes were the most effective weapon against enemy positions dug in on the reverse slopes of the ridges. Napalm, dropped from low altitude, was recognized as the most effective air weapon against tanks, troops in trenches, and inflammable targets. Marine pilots' favorite was a mix of high-explosive, incendiary, and armor-piercing 20mm cannon ammunition, which disintegrated vehicles, stopped locomotives, and mowed down enemy troops.
American pilots sometimes attacked civilian-clad groups in South Korea on suspicion they harbored enemy infiltrators. Survivors and other witnesses said as many as 300 civilian refugees were killed in the US air attack at a cave near Youngchoon, 90 miles southeast of Seoul. The attack took place on 20 January 1951, in the seventh month of the Korean War. When the American firebombs hit, hundreds of terrified refugees trapped in the cave rushed for the entrance, but only a dozen escaped.
On 21 March 2000, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea issued a memorandum detailing records of "criminal acts against humanity" committed by United States troops during the three-year Korean War (1950-1953). The DPRK report stated that the United States killed peaceful citizens by indiscriminate bombing and naval bombardment against urban and rural areas in the North. According to the DPRK, from 11 July to 20 August 1951, more than 10,000 United States planes had conducted over 250 air raids on Pyongyang, dropping as many as 4,000 bombs, killing 4,000 civilians and wounding 2,500 more. From 11 to 12 July 1952, 400 United States planes dropped more than 6,000 napalm bombs and time-bombs, killing 8,000 civilians, including women and children. "Town and country were reduced to ashes and several million peaceable inhabitants killed", the Permanent Representative of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Li Hyong Chol, said. According to the DPRK report, Napalm and other bombs dropped by United States war planes totaled more than 600,000 tons, which was 3.7 times the 161,425 tons dropped over Japan during the Pacific War.
The US used napalm during the Vietnam War [although technically speaking, it was not "napalm" per se because it included neither naphthalene nor palmitate, but instead was the Napalm-B mixture of polystyrene, gasoline and benzene]. To its critics, napalm represented the fiery essence of all that was horrible about the war in Vietnam. Most people still associate napalm with the image of a young girl running with a group of other victims, skin peeling off in layers, after her village was doused with napalm. Images of napalm igniting in jungles, in villages, and on the people of Vietnam are still cultural icons of the era. It is routinely cited along with Agent Orange as an example of American apathy to the cruelty of modern weapons. Nearly 400,000 tons of napalm were dropped on targets in Vietnam, giving rise to the Army marching song which includes the chorus line, "Napalm sticks to kids!". Vietnamese fighter escort aircraft, when using napalm to clear landing zones, often made the strikes just before the helicopters arrived; the resulting fire and smoke constituted a serious hazard to the helicopters. A single CH-47 could drop two and one-half tons of napalm on an enemy installation. Naturally, this method of dropping napalm was only used on specific targets where tactical air could not be effectively used.
Since the US would not attack irrigation dikes in North Vietnam, the North Vietnamese exploited the situation by placing anti-aircraft sites atop or adjacent to dikes. The air defenses threatened US forces, and by degrading bombing accuracy against lawful targets led to greater incidental civilian casualties. The Johnson administration denied repeated requests for authorization to attack these air defense sites. When they were finally authorized for attack during Linebacker I, the targets were attacked with weapons that would minimize the risk of structural damage to the dikes. This was accomplished through the use of napalm, strafing, cluster munitions, and other antipersonnel weapons.
Dow Chemical was responsible for the manufacture of napalm for the US military between 1965 and 1969. Demonstrations against the company stirred public controversy. Harun Farocki's astute 1969 film "Inextinguishable Fire" focused on the production of Napalm B by the Dow Chemical Company. After weighing the moral and practical aspects, Dow decided that its first obligation was to the government.
Israel used napalm during the 1967 war and in the 1980's in Lebanon. On June 8, 1967, Israel attacked the USS Liberty. Thirty-four American soldiers were killed and one hundred and seventy one were wounded. Both the US and Israeli governments have ruled the attack a tragic case of mistaken identity, but many survivors remain unconvinced. The Israeli forces attacked the ship with napalm, with canon fire, and with torpedoes. They did everything they could to blow up the ship; firing, for example, five torpedoes at the ship, one of which blew a forty-foot hole into the ship. This was followed by shots at the life rafts of people trying to escape the ship.
In Angola, the Portuguese military used defoliants and napalm, mined trails, and poisoned water holes as tactics to counter their adversaries.
By 1969, the Biafrans had reassessed the resolve of their Nigerian opponent. The verdict was that the unrestrained aerial attacks on undefended hospitals and markets, especially with napalm, and the tightening blockade were further evidence of the Federal desire to commit genocide, i.e., the eradication of the Ibo population.
In May 1972, when the Brazilian military operation effectively started, FOGUERA had about 80 guerrilla fighters. One of the first operations completed in the area was a clean-sweep action over the only existing mountains in the region, the Andorinhas Mountains, which do not have natural cover. After being bombarded with napalm by the Air Force, the mountains were the object of a vigorous search and encirclement mission conducted by a large force. The results were dismal because the guerrillas were never there.
In the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, Moshe Dayan was nearly injured when an Egyptian helicopter dropped a napalm barrel near him at Adan's command post on the east bank.
During the 1982 Falklands conflict, the Argentine PUCARA proved an enduring craft. They were hit numerous times by British small arms fire and by BLOWPIPE SAMS, but were often able to return to their base for repair. They were used to combat British helicopters and shot down two. They also delivered NAPALM against British positions on at least one occasion.
In early November 1994, Serbs from within Croatia launched missile and air strikes on the Bihac pocket. Bosnian Serbs and the rebel Muslim forces attacked the Bihac pocket from Croatia. During an attack on November 18, these forces used napalm and cluster bombs, which the Security Council noted was "in clear violation of Bihac's status as a safe area." The air attacks from Croatia led the Security Council to authorize the use of NATO air power on targets in Croatia.
Napalm was used during the Persian Gulf War. The Marine Corps dropped all of the approximately 500 MK-77s used in the Gulf War. They were delivered primarily by the AV-8 Harriers from relatively low altitudes. During Operation Desert Storm MK-77s were used to ignite the Iraqis oil-filled fire trenches, which were part of barriers constructed in southern Kuwait.
The massive defeat of the Iraqi military machine tempted the Iraqi Kurds to revolt against the Baghdad regime. Encouraged by American radio broadcasts to rise up against their 'dictator', the Kurds of northern Iraq rebelled against a nominally defeated and certainly weakened Saddam Hussein in March of 1991. Shortly after the war ended, Kurdish rebels attacked disorganized Iraqi units and seized control of several towns in northern Iraq. From the town of Rania, this sedition spread quickly through the Kurdish north. Fear of being drawn into an Iraqi civil war and possible diplomatic repercussions precluded President Bush from committing US forces to support the Kurds. Within days Iraqi forces recovered and launched a ruthless counteroffensive including napalm and chemical attacks from helicopters. They quickly reclaimed lost territory and crushed the rebellion.
In late 1997, Turkey launched attacks on Kurdish villages in Northern Iraq. Turkey said that they were pursuing the PKK into Northern Iraq. The use of napalm and cluster bombs against civilians in Northern Iraq was part of Turkey's military efforts against the Kurds.

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I have always found Winston fascinating. He was a great man, who did things that I admired and things that make me shudder. I'll stick to reading about gardens and green jobs. If we all had jobs perhaps we would make peace instead of war. Will we ever be satisfied, I doubt it.
I was watching Apocalypse Now, it's a great movie. The directing was great. I decided to looked up napalm and I found this article. We humans turn every blessing into something good and bad. Why can't we all be friends, damned if I'll ever know.

[BACKGROUND: In 1917, following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire, the British occupied Iraq and established a colonial government. The Arab and Kurdish people of Iraq resisted the British occupation, and by 1920 this had developed into a full scale national revolt, which cost the British dearly. As the Iraqi resistance gained strength, the British resorted to increasingly repressive measures, including the use of posion gas.] NB: Because of formatting problems, quotation marks will appear as stars *

    All quotes in the excerpt are properly footnoted in the original book, with full references to British archives and papers.  Excerpt from pages 179-181 of Simons, Geoff. *IRAQ: FROM SUMER TO SUDAN*. London: St. Martins Press, 1994:
    Winston Churchill, as colonial secretary, was sensitive to the cost of policing the Empire; and was in consequence keen to exploit the potential of modern technology. This strategy had particular relevance to operations in Iraq. On 19 February, 1920, before the start of the Arab uprising, Churchill (then Secretary for War and Air) wrote to Sir Hugh Trenchard, the pioneer of air warfare. Would it be possible for Trenchard to take control of Iraq? This would entail *the provision of some kind of asphyxiating bombs calculated to cause disablement of some kind but not death...for use in preliminary operations against turbulent tribes.*
    Churchill was in no doubt that gas could be profitably employed against the Kurds and Iraqis (as well as against other peoples in the Empire): *I do not understand this sqeamishness about the use of gas. I am strongly in favour of using poison gas against uncivilised tribes.* Henry Wilson shared Churchills enthusiasm for gas as an instrument of colonial control but the British cabinet was reluctant to sanction the use of a weapon that had caused such misery and revulsion in the First World War. Churchill himself was keen to argue that gas, fired from ground-based guns or dropped from aircraft, would cause *only discomfort or illness, but not death* to dissident tribespeople; but his optimistic view of the effects of gas were mistaken. It was likely that the suggested gas would permanently damage eyesight and *kill children and sickly persons, more especially as the people against whom we intend to use it have no medical knowledge with which to supply antidotes.*
    Churchill remained  unimpressed by such considerations, arguing that the use of gas, a *scientific expedient,* should not be prevented *by the prejudices of those who do not think clearly*. In the event, gas was used against the Iraqi rebels with excellent moral effect* though gas shells were not dropped from aircraft because of practical difficulties [.....]
    Today in 1993 there are still Iraqis and Kurds who remember being bombed and machine-gunned by the RAF in the 1920s. A Kurd from the Korak mountains commented, seventy years after the event: *They were bombing here in the Kaniya Khoran...Sometimes they raided three times a day.* Wing Commander Lewis, then of 30 Squadron (RAF), Iraq, recalls how quite often *one would get a signal that a certain Kurdish village would have to be bombed...*, the RAF pilots being ordered to bomb any Kurd who looked hostile. In the same vein, Squadron-Leader Kendal of 30 Squadron recalls that if the tribespeople were doing something they ought not be doing then you shot them.*
    Similarly, Wing-Commander Gale, also of 30 Squadron: *If the Kurds  hadn't learned by our example to behave themselves in a civilised way then we had to spank their bottoms. This was done by bombs and guns.
    Wing-Commander Sir Arthur Harris (later Bomber Harris, head of wartime  Bomber Command) was happy to emphasise that *The Arab and Kurd now   know what real bombing means in casualties and damage. Within forty-five   minutes a full-size village can be practically wiped out and a third of its inhabitants killed or injured.*  It was an easy matter to bomb and machine-gun the tribespeople, because they had no means of defence or retalitation. Iraq and Kurdistan were also useful laboratories for new weapons; devices specifically developed by the Air Ministry for use against tribal villages. The ministry drew up a list of possible weapons, some of them the forerunners of napalm and air-to-ground missiles:
    Phosphorus bombs, war rockets, metal crowsfeet [to maim livestock] man-killing shrapnel, liquid fire, delay-action bombs. Many of these weapons were first used in Kurdistan.
Excerpt from pages 179-181 of Simons, Geoff. *Iraq: From Sumer to Saddam*.
London: St. Martins Press, 1994.
Gas, chemicals, bombs: Britain has used them all before in Iraq   a recent study corroborating much of the above by
Jonathan Glancey
Saturday April 19, 2003
The Guardian

What’s Driving the Natural Gas Rally?

What’s Driving the Natural Gas Rally?

What’s Driving the Natural Gas Rally?

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If you haven't noticed, natural gas prices have soared over the past month and a half, helping reverse a lengthy decline that began in the summer of 2011. Gas futures in New York settled at a 20-month high on Friday, led by colder-than-expected weather that helped reduce stockpiles below the five-year average for the first time since 2011.
Cold weather erases stockpile surplus
March saw uncharacteristically strong demand for home heating because of unusually chilly temperatures. The trend is expected to continue, with MDA Weather Services, a provider of meteorological forecasts, predicting colder-than-usual temperatures in the north-central states and hotter-than-usual weather for Texas and the Southeast for next week.
In the week ended March 29, the U.S. Energy Information Administration reported that 94 billion cubic feet, or bcf, of natural gas were withdrawn from underground storage, exceeding Wall Street's consensus for a draw of 92 bcf. That pushed the amount of working gas in storage down to 1.687 trillion cubic feet, or tcf, a decrease of 779 bcf from a year earlier and 37 bcf below the five-year average.
In addition to bullish st…

"Comments this reminds me of the drop in oil prices meant to destroy competition and start-ups. The giants  thin out the herd they again have all the leverage. Manipulation,: to discourage hope in renewables. Destroying the electric car, all over again. They leave us vulnerable with less homeland energy security. Most of the world uses natural gas powered cars. We need to keep gas prices high for nonbusiness use. People will work closer to home and city land prices will go up. Suburbs to costly to maintain in a broke country. Tax dollars should get a better ROI than the suburbs." Comment

Wealthiest Americans Only Winners in Recovery, Pew Says - Bloomberg

Wealthiest Americans Only Winners in Recovery, Pew Says - Bloomberg

Wealthiest Americans Only Winners in Recovery, Pew Says

The U.S. economy has recovered for households with net worth of $500,000 or more, a new study shows. The recession continues for almost everyone else.
Wealthy households boosted their net worth by 21.2 percent in the aftermath of the recession, according to the study released today by the Pew Research Center. The rest of America lost 4.9 percent of household wealth from 2009 to 2011.

 Pew attributed the disparity to gains during that period in the stock and bond markets, benefiting affluent households, while the housing market’s decline hit others harder. The report underscores the nation’s growing income inequality, with the top 13 percent of households recovering their losses from the 18- month recession that ended in June 2009, and the rest of the country continuing to hemorrhage wealth.
“The results are entirely sensible, but depressing,” said Richard Fry, a Pew senior research associate and co-author of the study by the Washington-based organization. “It’s a stark story of two Americas.”
Average household net worth across all income levels increased 14 percent to $338,950 from 2009 to 2011, the latest figures available from the U.S. Census Bureau.
The Pew report, based on the Census Bureau’s Survey of Income and Program Participation, reinforces a body of evidence that the U.S. is becoming a nation of haves and have-nots.

Widening Gap

One of the most common measures of income inequality, the Gini coefficient, has risen in the last generation. The coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, with a zero indicating that all income is shared equally and a one representing complete concentration of income.
Income inequality in the U.S. grew to 0.477 in 2011, according to the Census Bureau, a 20.2 percent increase from the 0.397 measured in 1967.
The gap between rich and poor is most pronounced in the Bridgeport, Connecticut, metropolitan area, about an hour from Wall Street. The Gini of 0.535 measured there is approximately the same as the national rate for Thailand, surpassing the figures for Zimbabwe and Chile.
The U.S. Gini is equivalent to the figures for Ecuador, China and Madagascar.
The growing inequality during the past three decades is becoming a permanent fixture of the U.S. economy, according to a Brookings Institution study released last month and co-authored by Jason DeBacker, a Middle Tennessee State University economist.

‘Less Dynamic’

“From a number of different perspectives, there’s evidence that the U.S. economy has become a little less dynamic,” DeBacker said.
Carl Van Horn, director of the Heldrich Center for Workforce Development at Rutgers University, said the recession’s effects are still being felt because of the length and breadth of the downturn, the worst since the Great Depression.
Americans feel mired in a slump even though the Cambridge, Massachusetts-based National Bureau of Economic Research declared that the recession ended in June 2009, Van Horn said.
“From the standpoint of the typical American, the data used aren’t always very useful indicators,” he said.
The Pew report found that interest-earning assets such as U.S. government securities, municipal and corporate bonds boosted wealth among high-income Americans. The value of those assets, owned by 13 percent of U.S. households with net worth greater than $500,000, rose 389 percent during the two-year period to an average of $803,641.
“Very few households have those assets, but when they do -- wow!” Fry said. “The average values just skyrocketed.”
401(k) Plans
Tax-deferred 401(k) plans, owned by 65 percent of wealthy households, recorded the second-fastest growth rate of any asset class, climbing 57 percent to an average value of $119,799. Thirty-nine percent of U.S. households with net worth less than $500,000 reported owning 401(k) or thrift savings plans.
Real estate, which sparked a global financial crisis in 2008 when the housing bubble collapsed, remained a poor investment after the recession. The Pew study said average rental-property equity plunged to $370,013 in 2011, down 32 percent from the $547,462 registered in 2009. Home equity dropped 16 percent to an average of $127,290.
To contact the reporter on this story: Frank Bass in New York at
To contact the editor responsible for this story: Mark McQuillan in Washington at